27 January 2017


Tourist generating areas are the homes of tourists where journey begin and end. The key issues to examine in tourist – generation areas are the features which stimulate demand for tourism and will include the geographical location of an area as well as its socio economic and demographic characteristics.

            According to Jina (1994), there are three important resources which attract the tourists in the destination country. The resources are as follows:
1.      Resources of hydrosphere
2.      Resources of lithosphere
3.      Resources of anthrop sphere

1.      Resources of hydrosphere:
            It constitutes all those attractions which are related to water or different forms of water such as snow and ice, minerals or thermal water. Apart from this, it also includes lakes, rivers, and those sites which are connected with water or its surrounding flora and fauna. Today resources of hydrosphere are considerably affected by tourism.

2.      Resources of lithosphere:
            It constitutes those attractions which are found on surface, whether they are prominently visible valleys, mountains, rivers etc. or leas visible dark covers, picturesque gorges etc.
3.      Resources of anthrop sphere:
            It represents present and past civilization. Under the past civilization, it may constitute monuments, ruins etc. They may speak of people and their activities such as folklore, handicrafts, festivals, customs, music etc. In case of modern activity these may represents technological innovation.

            Gilbert (1990) provides a classification of the main types of activities which the tourist may demand of a destination area which is given below communing with nature demand for open areas, party, commons, ramblings walking etc:
Attractions: visiting zoos, safari parks, wax work, theme parks etc.

Heritage: visiting castles stately homes, museums, ancient monuments, religious                           sites, galleries and battlefields.

Sport activity: taking part in or watching various forms of indoor or outdoor sport including those of a specifically rural or urban nature. These would include ten pin bowling, fishing, sailing, golf, shooting, swimming.

Entertainments: other than sport, this would include visits to the cinema, theatre, bass, concerts, discos, restaurants etc.

Relaxation: sunbathing, resting, reading etc.

Health: taking health care treatment, saunas, massage, and therapy includes moral health such as religion and pilgrimage etc.

Shopping: browsing souvenir or antique hunting, special purchase trips for new outfits, gifts, new high cost equipment etc.

Business activities: meeting, conferences, exhibition etc.

            Tourism is now one of the world’s major industries and continuous to expand. It can be viewed in terms of demands and supply – demand by the tourists and supply of the attraction, facilities and services, transportation, promotion and information. Tourism development brings benefits i.e. new business and jobs, additional income, new technologies, greater environmental and cultural awareness and protection, improved infrastructure and if carefully planned and controlled improved land use patterns.

            Tourism is not necessarily desirable or feasible for every place. Each community should examine whether there are potentials, tourist markets can be attracted to the community, whether it needs tourism to search economic development objectives. Tourist destination areas for tourists to stay temporarily will have features which may not be found in the generating areas. The tourist industry located in this area will comprise the accommodation retailing and service function, entertainment, recreation etc. Tourist flows are a form of spatial interaction between two areas with the destination area.

            The tourism product and the market basically depend upon the following features and natures:
1.      Intangibility:
Tourism product is a non material product and it is intangible in nature. Unlike other tangible material or products, tourism products and services cannot be seen and touched. We can just feel the tourism products only. Guest cannot touch and see the hospitality experiences before taking the benefit of it. E.g. the level of services provided by the waiter in a restaurant to the customer cannot be seen or measure. They can just be felt.

2.      Instability:
The market and the demand of tourism product are highly unstable and are easily influenced by person, seasons, weather, economic and political conditions and social factors.

3.      Perishability:
            Unlike the other goods, tourism products and services has no self life span. It cannot be stockpiled to sell later due to its perishable nature. For e.g. unused guestroom in a hotel, empty restaurant seats, empty airlines seats etc. represents the business loss forever.

4.      Insecurability:
            The production and consumption of tourism products should be done at a time. Basically tourist needs to go to desired place or destination to consume the actual tourist product which cannot be transferable and separable.

5.      Inconsistency:
            The services, amenities, attractions provided to the tourists will be different from person to person and place to place. There is much variability on maintaining a consistence level of service which is really challenging.

6.      Composite product:
            Tourism products are resembled by many products. These services and products are however merging to make a final tourism product by the joined efforts of many organizations. Therefore it is an amalgam of many components produced or offered by various enterprises.

7.      Intermediaries dominance:
            There is a dominant role of middleman tourism in tourism industry. Tourism market is dominated or influenced by travel agency, tours operators who often influence the guest in determining choices also.

8.      Heterogeneous motivation:
            Identifying the exact motivational factor of a tourist is really changing and quiet impossible. They do have different desire, motivations and willingness created by different factors, products and services of tourism.


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