01 August 2016


Any people who visits different places for different purpose not morethan 360 days and not less than a day are known as tourist. Tourist may be external or internal on the basis of their movement. Any people who visit any place and return back to origin place within 24 hours is said to be an excursionist and such visit is known as excursion. Tourist may visits with the aim of utilizing their leisure time, holiday interval, recreational, educational and religious.

For the first time, the definition of the tourist was given by League of Nations with the view focused to make international travel statistics of all countries of the world comparable. The definition runs as “the term tourist shall in principle be implemented to mean any person traveling for a period of 24 hours or more in a country other than that in which he usually resides.”

On the basis of above definition, the following persons might be considered as tourists:
1. Persons traveling for pleasure, for domestic reasons, health etc.
2. Persons traveling for meeting or missions of any kind (scientific, administrative, diplomatic, religious, athletic etc.)
3. Persons traveling for business purposes.
4. Persons arriving in the course of a sea cruise even though they stay for less than 24 hours.

Tourism is defined as the some total of an operation which is directly related with the entry, stay and the movement of tourist from one place to another place inside or outside the certain country, city or origin. It is a temporary or short term movement of people to the destination outside the nations or outside the places where they used to live and work and their activities during their stay at the destination. It includes the movements for any purpose as well as the day visit or excursion.

The dictionary meaning of the word tourism is organizing, touring and other services for touring. The word tourism didn’t appear in English dictionary until 19th century. It is derived from the French word “tourime” which means to travel and travel jobs. Tourism is not an industry rather it is an activities which take place when a people move from one place to another place for leisure or business residing at least for 24 hours but not exceeding 12 months or one consecutive year without exercise of an activity of getting remuneration.

According to Tiwari, the concept of tourism can be summed up as:
1. A movement of people to various destination has two components, journey and stay, both of which take place outside the normal area of residence and work.
2. The movement is of a temporary nature and for a short duration, which distinguishes it from migration.
3. It gives rise to activities at the destination, which are distinct from those of resident population of the place visited.
4. The main motive for participation in tourism is largely recreation and the visit is made for the purpose other than seeking permanent residence or employment remunerated form within the place visited.
5. Tourism, in the pure sense, is essentially a pleasure activity and involves a discretionary use of freely disposable incomes and free time.


International tourism is bringing as it does, people of different nationalities, traditions and beliefs face to face, teaching them the need to get along with each other thereby elimination prejudice. Therefore, for a nation it becomes a powerful factor in social advancement and for peaceful relations between nations. Today numerous persons leave their country each year to spend weeks or days in other countries. Those several people are thus enabled to make direct contact with foreigners to contemplate their customs and tradition and to obtain a truer picture of their mentality and their aspirations.

Jimmy Carter, the former president of the United States, in his opening address to the universal federation on travel agents association congress held in the United States of America said, “Travel is a strong influence in the development of human potential and a vital link in the world communication. By visiting other lands, exchanging ideas and making new friendship, we can help to build goodwill and peaceful intercourse among all peoples”. Similarly, Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, the constitutional president of the united states of Mexico said, “ the world should no longer regard tourism as a business, but as a means by which men may know and understand one another, human understanding being so essential in the world at this time.


Tourism doesn’t exist in isolation. It consists of certain components, three of which may be considered as basic ones. These basic components are Attraction, Access and Accommodation. The knowledge of tourism components and their interrelation is essential. Willingness to travel is affected by several factors. It is an outcome of attraction, access, accommodation, amenities, activities, affinity and actor. Therefore it is important to identify and categorize components of tourism. The quantity and quality of tourism components determine tourism success in any area.

1. Attraction:

Attractions are those elements which determine the choice of a tourist to visit one place rather than another. In other words attractions are those elements in the tourist product which determine the choice of particular tourist to visit any place. Attractions are the preconditions of travel without which, tourist will not be motivated to visit a particular place. Basically there are two types of attraction that create willingness to travel. They are:
a) Man made (artificial attraction): Historical sites and archeological sites, cultural attractions, festivals and ceremonies, hotels, resorts and restaurant, zoos and museums, trade fair exhibition, national parks, spa
b) Natural attraction: Natural heritages like lake, rivers, waterfalls, mountains hills, valleys, forest, jungle natural wonder, flora and fauna etc.

It is notable that underdeveloped attractions are only potential resources and do not become attraction unless some type of development, especially access takes place so that attraction can be used in some way. Attraction relates closely to the travel motivation because the tourist must want to visit and experience it. The success of particular attraction may change through time as travel motivation and fashion change.

The motivating factors for attractions are affected by various factors. The willingness to travel is affected by factors like geography, environment, high purchasing power, economic stability, political and legal factors, marketing, hospitality, weather, seasons etc.

Tourism can be more successful in an area if more than one type of attraction exist or can be developed. The success of a destination depends not only on its power to attract tourists but also on its ability to hold them.

2. Accessibility:

Accessibility can be regarded as means by which a tourist can reaches where the attractions are located. In the tourism point of view accessibility is to means to fulfill the degree of desire or willingness created by attractions. Tourist attractions which are located near to the tourist generating markets and are linked by a network of efficient transport receive the maximum number of tourists. The means are various modes of transportation including trekking, hiking, biking, mountaineering, or expedition etc.

Therefore transportation is the main components to reach the attractions. It is also regarded as necessary pre condition of tourism because pre conditions of travel are always movement and movement asked for transportations. Basically there are four major modes of transportations. They are:
a) Road: bus, car, vans, bikes etc
b) Air: jet aeroplane, helicopter etc
c) Railways: train
d) Water: cruise ship, boats, rafting etc.

Where there are no facilities of transportation, we can’t imagine about tourism. For tourist there must be the facility of transportation to reach the destination in a comfortable, reliable way. Actually the tourism starts with the development of road and with the transportation means. For trekkers too, trekking route should be developed.

3. Accommodation:

It is one of the major components of tourism which arises from movement and the stay of tourist. There are two most important elements of tourism. One is journey to the destination and the other stay at the destination. The journey is related to transportation and stay is related to accommodation. In the promotion of tourism accommodation sectors constitute the important segment. In the great extent tourism depends on types and quality of accommodation available to the tourist. Therefore accommodation is very important tourism infrastructure. After having reached to the destination, a tourist requires some kind of accommodation which provides him/her food and rest.
For successful tourism, accommodation must be available in sufficient quantity and quality to match the demand of the travelers who arrive at the destination. Hotels vary tremendously in their physical facilities, level of maintenance and cleanliness and services. Unless all of these factors are at satisfactory level, tourism can’t succeed. Basically there are two types of accommodation. They are:
a) Service accommodation (hotels and similar types of establishment): hotel, resorts, inns, guest house etc.
b) Supplementary accommodation: rented rooms, rented house, apartment, youth hostels etc.

4. Amenities:

Amenities are the comforts and facilities added to attraction, accessibility and accommodation. These elements themselves don’t generate the flow of tourist but whose absence might detract the tourist flow. The tourism sector shouldn’t be isolated but link with other financial, communication, health services, air ticketing, and providing facilities. The amenities include different facilities and services provided by the government as well as private sectors. Following are the various types of facilities and services provided to the tourists:
a) Facilities provided by a government sector: visa, passport, custom facility, foreign currency exchange, immigration etc.
b) Facilities provided by non governmental organization:
- Travel agency: booking tickets, hotel booking, travel and tour package etc.
- Airlines agency: rate attraction, insurance attraction, service attraction etc.
- Financial institution: it deals credit card, travel cheque, money transfer etc.
- Communication system: postal service, fax, telephone, e-mail, internet, telex etc.
- Accommodation and hotel sector: business sector, conference, swimming pool, room services, laundry, restaurants, pub and bars etc.
- Spa: it is a special kind of medical bath.

5. Activities:
6. Affinity:
7. Actors:
8. Infrastructures:

The term infrastructure refers to all forms of construction on and below ground required by an inhabited area in intensive communication with the outside world and as a basis for intensive human activity within. Infrastructure includes roads, transportation means, electric lines, sewage system, water system, power supply and other related services. The infrastructure precedes the superstructures which include all of the facilities built to serve visitors – hotels, resorts, restaurant, entertainment centers, recreational amenities, casinos, shops and so on. Till these infrastructures are appropriately developed, it is hard to develop the tourism sector. Tourists are basically deviated towards such a place where there are optimum facilities of the required facilities.

9. Souvenir shops:

Shopping is another important tourist’s activity. To make shopping as convenient as possible, almost tourist destinations should provide shops which feature gift items and particularly local handicraft and act work. In the shopping areas of each community which caters successfully to tourists are found quality gifted souvenir shops featuring items of particular interest to visitors. The souvenir shops will beat airport hotel, motel resorts, streets, cultural sites and other tourists’ areas.

10. Food catering:

Foods catering helps tourist to survive there. Food catering facilities are among the most frequently used tourism services after accommodation. Tourist use of catering facilities varies according to the specific service on offer and on their being located through out cities, often in association with other facilities. catering facilities also have a predisposition to cluster within areas where shopping is also a dominant activity.

Among the above factors, the first three factors are seemed to be must important factors.


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